The critical meaning of cloning is the process of despliction of the biological material. Cloning is a sexual process in which the genetic material cells made up by the process of asexual fertilization.
The first mammalian clone was developed by the scientist IAN WILMAT, who is the Dolly in 1996 . The scientist Ian developed Dolly in the Roslin Institute in America .
On the basis of biological process the cloning is a type of sexual reproduction.
On the basis of their development cloning are three types
- Reproductive cloning
- Gene cloning Or Recombinant DNA
- Therapeutic cloning
This is a most famous cloning, which is genetic to create a whale animal. This type of cloning whale individual is produced.
PROCESS OF REPRODUCTIVE CLONING
- In the process of reproductive cloning, somatic cells are removed from the body of a pictorial animal.
- Nucleus is isolated from the somatic cell and this nucleus is introduced in the ovam of the same species.
- The nucleus of ovum is also released the nucleus of somatic cells after the insertion zygote form the zygote is divided by the instimulation of electric discharge. After that the cleavage starts and after that cleavage a solid ball. The structure is from which is called Morula.
- Morula contains 200 cells after the Morula stage is a transfer in the uterus of female animals of the same species and after a particular castration period young animals are born and this type of cloning is called Reproductive cloning.
GENE CLONING OR RECOMBINANT CLONING
This is a small scale cloning method in which a specific gene is done. The gene cloning includes the transfer of DNA fragments from one organism to a replacing genetic element plasmid. This plasmid is mostly present in the case of bacteria.
Bacterial plasmid cutdown by the help restriction endonuclease enzymes and the second gene element introduced is it after that the joining Process is achieved by ligase enzyme.
After that this plasmid is called Recombinant DNA which is inserted in the bacterial cell and the bacterial multiple and produces a number of copies of the foreign DNA molecule. And this type of cloning is called gene doming Recombinant DNA cloning.
EXAMPLE: Humulin insulin is produced by the process of gene cloning Or Recombinant DNA cloning.
This type of cloning is always used for the treatment diffant diseases so it is called Therapeutic Cloning. This type of cloning is mostly used for the harvesting of stem cells.
PROCESS OF THERAPEUTIC CLONING
- The process of Therapeutic Cloning involves only the production of morula. In this process all the stages of cloning are achieved in the laboratory condition (in vitro).
- After the formation of zygote the cleavage takes place and after a particular time period solid ball like structure morula is formed.
- After the formation of morula the inter blastomere are harvested, which have the property of stem cells and these stem cells are used in the treatment of different diseases and this cloning is called Therapeutic Cloning.